The covenants begin with the sin of Adam and Eve when God promised the seed of woman would be coming.
Many centuries after the promise in Eden, God made a promise to Abraham
which would become the basis of the old covenant. This covenant was given to the children of Israel
and became a tutor leading them to a new covenant with the coming of Jesus Christ.
The old covenant is the combination of the ten commandments, the ordinances, statutes and judgments of God and the books of the Old Testament.
The ten commandments constituted the basis or foundation of the old covenant.
Many New Testament writers referred to the Old Testament books as part of the covenant or law.
The old covenant is referred multiple times in the Old and New Testament as the law of Moses, the law, the law of the lord and the law of god.
The old covenant was totally taken away for the Jewish nation, when the Son of God died on the cross;
the old covenant was nailed to the cross.
The Jewish nation became subject to the new covenant on the first Pentecost after the resurrection of Jesus Christ
when the Holy Spirit was poured out on Apostles.
From the beginning of creation all people were living under laws of God which eventually became the Patriarchal Law.
The Gentiles were not included when the old covenant went into effect; only the Jewish nation.
The Gentiles continued living under the Patriarchal Law.
The Patriarchal Law was no longer valid with the coming of the new covenant.
They became subject to the new covenant when the Holy Spirit was poured out on Cornelius.
As noted above, the author of Hebrews says Jesus was the “guarantor of a better covenant” and “the new covenant is established on better promises."
Both the Jews and Gentiles are now under the new covenant. Why would we even be tempted to reach back beyond the cross
to borrow from a covenant that was temporary and inferior to the covenant established for us at Calvary?
For all of us here today whether Jews or Gentiles, whenever we try to justify our actions by the old covenant we are disobediant to God.
Many false teachers today call on people to keep the Law, or at least part of it, as a means to please God.
But God is never pleased when we violate his laws.